Group Theory

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory- Workplace Influences

     Frederick Herzberg states that people in the workplace are influenced by two factors-
Motivation factors- Satisfaction and psychological growth
Hygiene factors- Dissatisfaction
     Herzberg developed this theory during an investigation of 200 engineers and accountants
     The significance of the theory
     Job satisfiers deal with factors involved in doing a job and job dissatisfiers deal with elements that define job context
     These ideas relate to modern ethical management, social responsibility, and the psychological contract
     Herzberg’s theory is an attempt to manage people properly as well as bring humanity and caring into the workplace
     His research showed that individuals will strive to achieve “hygiene” needs because they are not satisfied without them. However, satisfaction is temporary
     Most individuals are only truly motivated by enabling them to be able to satisfy the factors that Herzberg identified such as advancement, development, and achievement
     Herzberg’s research experiment
     Data were collected from 200 engineers and accountants in the Pittsburgh area
     Each respondent listed events that marked changes in feelings in the workplace and also other interpretations of what factors led to their satisfaction in the workplace such as:
            Intrinsic interest in the work done
     What do most individuals want from their jobs?
     Do employees just want to make a higher salary?
            Opportunities for advancement?
            Good relationships with their co-workers?
            Or something else?
     By analyzing these interviews, Herzberg found that job characteristic related to the nature of the work an individual performs
     However, he found that the absence of gratifying job characteristics did not appear to lead to dissatisfaction or unhappiness
     Instead, he found that dissatisfaction resulted from unfavorable assessments
     Purpose of the study and what it means in today’s workplace
     Purpose of the study was to develop the Herzberg theory and its application to an organization in order to increase its worker’s productivity
     The Two-Factor Theory is one of the most known and accepted job enrichment methods used today
     The study caused considerable controversy among behaviorists
     A sense of achievement meaning employees will know that due to their hard work, the business will be grow
     Recognition of workers contribution. Giving credit to the employees as well as making them feel good about themselves
     Intrinsic motivators represent less tangible, more emotional needs as well as challenging work
     Extrinsic motivators represent more tangible and basic needs such as job security, pay, and fringe benefits
     Motivational factors

     Career advancement

     Personal Growth





     Factor that has the effect to demotivate workers
     Affect the conditions of the workplace
     Elements of life or work that don’t increase satisfaction but can lead to dissatisfaction if they are missing
     Hygiene factors
     Rate of pay
     Relations with others
     Quality of supervision
     Job security
     Company Policies
     Satisfaction and dissatisfaction
     Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are independent of one another where one can increase and the other doesn’t have to diminish
     Satisfaction– Motivator factors
     Dissatisfaction- Hygiene factors
     First step- eliminate job dissatisfaction
     To get rid of hygiene factors which cause dissatisfaction
            Fix obstructive company policies
            provide supportive and non-intrusive supervision
            Create and support respect and dignity
            Ensure wages are competitive
            Build job status by providing meaningful work

     Second step- Create job satisfaction

     Provide opportunities for achievement
     Give credit for work done to who did it
     Create rewarding work that compliments the skills of the employee
     Provide advancement opportunities
     Offer development opportunities
     By correcting hygiene matters, the working environment will improve which will help keep employees happy as well
     By following Herzberg’s theory, the business and its workers will benefit
     Motivated and happy workers will boost productivity


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