TCP/IP is a protocol stack used for data transmission from source to the destination in the physical layer of all physical connections, like LAN cards and cables. Data is sent in the form of bits. TCP works with IP to enable applications to communicate like a physical circuit. A header is also attached to the data. TCP opens the connection, transmits bytes in order, and finally closes the connection. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) detects and reports network errors, dropped packets, connectivity, and redirection.
Secure shell (SSH) uses port 22 and starts a secure session similar to Telnet. This is done over a standard TCP/IP connection. SSH, created in 1995, is a protocol that provides administrators a secure way to access a remote computer and also refers to the utilities that implement the protocol. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) uses port 23 and serves as a file transfer between programs. UDP, an alternative to TCP, can create low latency and loss tolerating connections between internet applications and the BGP (Border Gateway Protocol). The BGP is a protocol that manages how packets are sent across the Internet through routing and reach-ability info. BGP directs packets.
Rouse, Margaret. “Secure Shell (SSH). Whatis.com. Search Security. www.Searchsecurity.techtarget.com. Web. Accessed 13 Jun 2017.